LANGUAGE ENGINEERING

Report by Joana Salazar García ( English Philology II)

                                                                 INDEX 

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION 

PLOT

* What is Language Engineering

* Techniques

* Components of Technology

* Which language resources are essential components of Language Engineering?

* Language Engineering and translation

*Improving opportunities for education

*conclusion

*References

ABSTRACT

  In this review what I am going to speak is about a topic that we have seen throug questionnaire. The topic in question is entitled : "Language Enginnering". Language Enginering belongs to the second questionnaire that we have done in class. So , in this project what I am going to try to do is explain some things that I considered important in the theme of "Language Engineering". 

  The use of language change almost everyday in our world. One of the reasons for that is because of the new techonologies which surrounded us. They are very useful for our language development.  

  Language Engineering helps us a lot. but, it´s true that the more solicitors for them are those who work in linguistics or translation fields. 

 

INTRODUCTION

  The aim of this project, as I say in the abstract, is to improve our knowledge in the theme of language. Language is the most important instrument for human comunication. With it we can communicate with the others. It´s true that the language throughout the life changes. If we investigate the fist words, we can see that they could change a little today. We are the responsibles for the language's changes but it is true that we are not the unique responsibles. 

  Nowadays, new technologies made a reaction to language. Language also has changed because it. The first thing that we have to do if we want to do an explanation about Language Engineering, is to know the meaning of it.

 

What is Language Engineering?   

 

  Language Engineering is the knowledge applicated to the language to be posible his development in the computer system in which we can interpretate or undertand the human language. Language engineering has a set of techniques and language resources.

  So, as we can see it is a way to understand and iterpretate human languages with techniques.Now, that we know more or less its meaning, I am going to explain things that we can find inside the language enginnering. I´m going to explain its techniques.

 

Language Engineering (Brouchure by HLTCentral: caché)

 

 

 Techniques

  The techniques  that we can find inside Language Engineering are the next : 

Speaker Identification and Verification

Speech Recognition

Character and Document Image Recognition

Natural Language Understanding

Speech Generation

 

Now I am going to put something about each technique function:

 

1 Speaker Identification and verification : 

  The human voice is the best human identification which also hepls us to identified the speaker. 

 

2. Speech Recognition: 

   The computer receives a sound. This sound is a speech sound. So, when we analize   the sound  we identified the phonemes. 

"There are a number of  problems , if speech is to become a commonly used medium for dealing with a computer

 A) The ability  of a continuous recognition, speech rather than speech which is deliberately delivered by the speaker as a series of discrete words separated by a pause.

 B) Speaker recognition.

 C) Serious problem of the noise which can interfere with recognition. Noise reduction can be used to allow accurate  recognition in noisy environments or over telecommunication networks.

 D) Problem of dealing with accents, dialects and language spoken."

 

www.serv-inf.deusto.es/abaitua/_outside/ikasle/hlt_03/ patricia_zaldua/

 

3. Character and document image recognition:

  Recognition  of both written and printed language tasks.It needs a symbol of language.We can find two types  of recognition: 

 a) Recognition of printed images = Optical Character Recognition (OCP)

 b) Recognising Handwriting = Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR)

 

4. Natural Language Understanding

    To focus some interesting parts of  text. Wiht it you can also  identify some linguistics features of unknown words.

 

5. Natural language generation

"A semantic representation of a text can be used as the basis for generating language. An interpretation of basic data or the underlying meaning of a sentence or phrase can be mapped into a surface string in a selected fashion; either in a chosen language or according to stylistic specifications by a text planning system."

http://www.hltcentral.org/usr_docs/Harness/harness-en.htm

 

6. Speech Generation

Speech is generated from filled templates.Speech generated has to account for aspects such as intensity, duration and stress in order to produce a continuous and natural response.Combination of speech recognition with simple generation ,dialogue can be stablished. Providing a library of speech recognisers and generators, together with a graphical tool for structuring their application, allows someone who is neither a speech expert nor a computer programmer to design a structured dialogue which can be used, for example, in automated handling of telephone calls.

Language Engineering (Brouchure by HLTCentral: caché)

 

Components of the Technology

The basic processes of Language Engineering are shown in the diagram below. These are broadly concerned with:

 

Which language resources are essential components of Language Engineering?

Language resourses are very important in Language Enginnering. With these components ( resources) The knowlegde of language is very well represented. They hepl us to understand better the language. What are the resources of the Langugae Engineering? I am going to explain them below: 

Lexicons

"A lexicon is a repository of words and knowledge about those words"

we can find some details inside this knowledge. Grammatical details such as: - morphology

                                                                                                                   - phonology

                                                                                                                   -  the meaning of the word in different textual contexts

Lexicons are needed for every language .

 

Specialist Lexicons

There are a number of special cases which are usually researched and produced separately from general purpose lexicons:

Proper names: The dictionaries of proper names are very useful to understand the language; They can be recognised within their context as places, objects, or person, or maybe animals. 

Terminology: Nowadays, there are a lot of erminologies which need to be recorded, structured and made available for language enhanced applications. Many of the most cost-effective applications of Language Engineering, such as multi-lingual technical document management and machine translation, depend on the availability of the appropriate terminology banks.

Wordnets:  "A wordnet describes the relationships between words". words such as synonyms, antonyms, collective nouns, and so on.

 

Grammars

The grammar hepl us in the description of the language structure in different levels: 

* word (morphological grammar)

 

* sentence

 

Corpora

"A corpus is a body of language" we cann find in it the following: 

 

There are corpora which are constructed for particular purposes: 

It could comprise recordings of car drivers speaking to a simulation of a control system

 

Language Engineering and translation

We can say that language Engineering has something with translation. why?´It connects with translation because the majority of the  information of Language Engineering has something with works of  translations.

Machine Translation is "the process that uses computer software to translate text from one natural language into another".( we have examples such as www.SYSTRAN.com).

We can find a lot of INTERNET addreses for this. It's true that all of them don't give us the same possibilities :

 

Improving opportunities for education

 

Some people can not go to study because they havwe to work or they are doing other courses. So that is why there are some educational systems by distance. The effectiveness of distance learning and self-study is improved by using telematics services and computer aided learning. The quality and success of computer aided learning can be greatly enhanced by the use of Language Engineering techniques.

 

 Students are likely to learn more effectively and have a longer concentration span. As we can see, this is a very success methode and confortable for those who can not come as us to the School, university or other kind of study centre.

 

conclusion

Throughout this project i have tríed to explain what are some functions and components of Language Engineering. As we can see with Language Engineering we can undesrtand human´s language better. We can interpretated the language communication and improve with the Language Engineering. 

As I have said in the project nowadays, we have the advantage of new technologies for many things. Things such as hte language. If we go to internet, we can see that it give us lots of opportunities to work on the language.  we have the opportunity to work in the language´s translations because, new technologies give us the advantage for it. 

With New Technologies the educational system has also changed. If you suffer difficulties to study what you want, there are some new educational systems to help you. For example, school by distance. you only need a computer for it. 

so, as we can see, the language is changing by the moment, if we compare it with the past.  

little by little it is changing because of the nwe technologies that surrounded us.

 

REFERENCES

I have to say that to do this project I have as model one ( to look more or les how to do it, but i don´t copy. i take a base and some ideas) that is why I am going to mention this girl's project:  

http://sirio.deusto.es/abaitua/_outside/ikasle/hlt_03/maria_moreno/

www.serv-inf.deusto.es/abaitua/_outside/ikasle/hlt_03/ patricia_zaldua/

other references:

http://www.hltcentral.org/usr_docs/Harness/harness-en.htm

www.SYSTRAN.com

Language Engineering (Brouchure by HLTCentral: caché)

http://www.time.com/time/europe/digital/printout/0,9869,166805,00.html