ANGELA MASIDE PÁRAMO.
HOW LANGUAGE ENGINEERING INFLUENCES ON SOCIETY AND FROM LANGUAGE,WHICH ARE ITS ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS?
This document is a review about how Language Engineering influences on society, based on information I have found all through the classes. In this review I would explain the influence of Language Engineering on society, because it consist on the application of each person’s language for the development of computer systems which can understand and recognise language in several of its forms.
This review is based on the information that I have found in the New Technologies classes taught by professor Abaitua.
In this review, I would explain the way Language Engineering influences on society. To make this technique go on, you must take care of each person knowledge of language , because it is through this process how computers began to understand human language.
I have decided to complete this review with the main techniques of Language Engineering, to see if all the main techniques of this technique have the same influence or not in society.
The review is classified in the following way: the first part, I am going to define the main topic, Language Engineering; I am describing some of the main characteristics of Language Engineering and the processes which are involved and how Language Engineering could be helpful. In the second part, I would try to explain how Language Engineering influences on society. Finally, I would build the conclusion and indicate the references.
To begin with, I would give a definition of Language Engineering. Language Engineering is the application of language to the development of computer systems which can recognise, understand, interpret and generate human language in all its forms.
For the development of this process, we must take into account the important role of language. Language is the way human beings communicate and it has suffered a lot of transformations all through history. With the process of Language Engineering, human beings have the opportunity to make language a more important and useful tool.
COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE ENGINEERING .
This process has several components that are concerned with the following statements:
a) entering material into the computer, using speech, printed text or handwriting, or text either keyed in or introduced electronically
b) recognising the language of the material, distinguishing separate words, for example, recording it in symbolic form and validating it
c) building an understanding of the meaning of the material, to the appropriate level for the particular application
d) using this understanding in an application such as transformation (e.g. speech to text), information retrieval, or human language translation
e) generating the medium for presenting the results of the application
f) finally, presenting the results to human users via a display of some kind: a printer or a plotter; a loud speaker or the telephone.
The processes of Language Engineering are shown in the diagram that follows:
SOME OF THE MAIN TECNIQUES IN LANGUAGE ENGINEERING.
A) Natural Language understanding:
People do not have to dominate perfectly language. Each person dominates the language in different ways. To understand the process of Language Engineering, each person must have a high level of understanding, because this process consists in the application of language to computer development, so more vocabulary a person have, computers will have better skills.
B) Speech Recognition.
The sound of speech is received by a computer in analogue wave forms which are analysed to identify the units of sound (called phonemes) which make up words. Statistical models of phonemes and words are used to recognise discrete or continuous speech input. The production of quality statistical models requires extensive training samples (corpora) and vast quantities of speech have been collected, and continue to be collected, for this purpose.
C) Speaker identification and verification.
Language Engineering is a process which uses our knowledge to enhance our
knowledge with computer systems in several ways:
HOW LANGUAGE ENGINEERING INFLUENCES ON SOCIETY?
As it is said before in this report, Language engineering has to do with the application of our language different computer skills.
This science will influence on society in the sense that the different computer skills that exist will recognise, understand and analyse our language trough them, so if the computers do not ``correct´´ what we say, we will end, not in a long future, with this particular science. This science would be developed also in the time of our children and then, computers would analyse in a better way that nowadays.
To prove that our language influences on society, some particular components ,I will mention and explain some of them.
A lexicon is a repository of words and knowledge about those words. This knowledge may include details of the grammatical structure of each word (morphology), the sound structure (phonology), the meaning of the word in different textual contexts, e.g. depending on the word or punctuation mark before or after it. A useful lexicon may have hundreds of thousands of entries. Lexicons are needed for every language of application.
There are a number of special cases which are usually researched and produced separately from general purpose lexicons:
Proper names: Dictionaries of proper names are essential to effective understanding of language, at least so that they can be recognised within their context as places, objects, or person, or maybe animals. They take on a special significance in many applications, however, where the name is key to the application such as in a voice operated navigation system, a holiday reservations system, or railway timetable information system, based on automated telephone call handling.
Terminology: In today's complex technological environment there are a host of terminologies which need to be recorded, structured and made available for language enhanced applications. Many of the most cost-effective applications of Language Engineering, such as multi-lingual technical document management and machine translation, depend on the availability of the appropriate terminology banks.
Word nets: A word net describes the relationships between words; for example, synonyms, antonyms, collective nouns, and so on. These can be invaluable in such applications as information retrieval, translator workbenches and intelligent office automation facilities for authoring.
As we have read in this report, Language Engineering is a very successful system, in nowadays society. This process could help all the people who work with language and all the fields that have to do with language , because it made us easy to translate or write stories, so it would be very helpful if society incorporate this process now and in the future.
If society integrates this science to help all the people who work with language , it could be a very big step to let other sciences be integrated and studied by society , because nowadays, all type of technologies, seem to be very difficult and not wanted by many people to integrate them. To integrate Language Engineering would be very helpful for the people who work with language and at least, for the people who use or read the works from phoneticians, linguists or writers.
All the information that I have used in this report it has been taken from the net. Form the following pages, you can find some examples or diagrams, that could complete the explanation about the theme.