HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGIES


ABASTRACT

This report contains several information taken from different internet pages. In
this project I will try to answer to some questions related with “Human
Languages and New Technologies”. I will also try to explain in an easy way the
different senses and usages of the following terms: “Computational Linguistics”,
“Natural Language Processing”, “Human Language Technologies” and “ Language
Engineering”.



INTRODUCTION
New Technologies are essential for our present daily work and even more and more
for the future. new Technologies are going to be the feature and our future and
we will not be able to live without New Technologies such as information
technology, internet, web pages, mobile phones and so on.
Even more I am realizing that little by little we have to deal with this new
kinds of Technologies and so we have to begin to understand this new
technologies, for us in the future could work better and more profesionaly with
computers and all its world. Because I am realized of the importance that New
Technologies are getting, this report deals important information, taken from
some internet pages, that deals with this this theme: Human Languages and new
Technologies. The method that I have followed to do this report is of the kind
of question- answer, that is, a questionare with information about the theme
that I have already mention and that are important to work with a computer
eficciently. So I am going to concentrate especially on some topics which are:
Human Language Technologies, Language Engineering, Computational Linguistics and
Natural Language Processing.





BODY

HUMAN  LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGIES
Human Language Technologies will help to build bridges across languages and
cultures and provide natural access to information and communication services.
It will enable an active use and assimilation of multimedia content, and further
strengthen Europe's position at the forefront of language-enabled digital
services. It will support business activities in a global context and promote a
truly human-centred infrastructure ensuring equal access and usage opportunities
for all. The ultimate goal of Human Language Technologies is an optimal use of
the human capital, maximising businesses' competitiveness and empowering people.

  http://sirio.deusto.es/abaitua/konzeptu/nlp/hlt2.htm
Last updated: 16.10.00 16:50
Human Language Technologies and the information societyThe overall objective of
HLT is to support e-business in a global context and to promote a human centred
infostructure ensuring equal access and usage opportunities for all. This is to
be achieved by developing multilingual technologies and demonstrating exemplary
applications providing features and functions that are critical for the
realisation of a truly user friendly Information
Societyhttp://sirio.deusto.es/abaitua/konzeptu/nlp/hlt.htmLast updated: 05.02.01
16:05

,
LANGUAGE INGINEERING AND THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
The Information Age
The development and convergence of computer and telecommunication technologies
has led to a revolution in the way that we work, communicate with each other,
buy goods and use services, and even the way we entertain and educate ourselves.
One of the results of this revolution is that large volumes of information will
increasingly be held in a form which is more natural for human users than the
strictly formatted, structured data typical of computer systems of the past.
Information presented in visual images, as sound, and in natural language,
either as text or speech, will become the norm.
We all deal with computer systems and services, either directly or indirectly,
every day of our lives. This is the information age and we are a society in
which information is vital to economic, social, and political success as well as
to our quality of life.
The changes of the last two decades may have seemed revolutionary but, in
reality, we are only on the threshold of this new age. There are still many new
ways in which the application of telematics and the use of language technology
will benefit our way of life, from interactive entertainment to lifelong
learning.
Although these changes will bring great benefits, it is important that we
anticipate difficulties which may arise, and develop ways to overcome them.
Examples of such problems are:
	access to much of the information may be available only to the computer
literate and those who understand English;
	a surfeit of information from which it is impossible to identify and select
what is really wanted.
Language Engineering can solve these problems.

Home and Abroad
Language Engineering will also help in the way that we deal with associates
abroad. Although the development of electronic commerce depends very much on the
adoption of interchange standards for communications and business transactions,
the use of natural language will continue, precisely because it is natural.
However, systems to generate business letters and other forms of communication
in foreign languages will ease and greatly enhance communication.
Automated translation combined with the management of documentation, including
technical manuals and user handbooks, will help to improve the quality of
service in a global marketplace. Export business will be handled cost
effectively with the same high level of customer care that is provided in the
home market.

How can we cope with so much information ?
One of the fundamental components of Language Engineering is the understanding
of language, by the computer. This is the basis of speech operated control
systems and of translation, for example. It is also the way in which we can
prevent ourselves from being overwhelmed with information, unable to collate,
analyse, and select what we need. However, if information services are capable
of understanding our requests, and can scan and select from the information base
with real understanding, not only will the problem of information overload be
solved but also no significant information will be missed. Language Engineering
will deliver the right information at the right time.
http://sirio.deusto.es/abaitua/konzeptu/nlp/echo/infoage.html


WHAT IS COMPUTATIONALLINGUISTICS?

Computational linguistics (CL) is a discipline between linguistics and computer
science which is concerned with the computational aspects of the human language
faculty. It belongs to the cognitive sciences and overlaps with the field of
artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science aiming at
computational models of human cognition. Computational linguistics has applied
and theoretical components.



Human language is a most exciting and demanding puzzle.

Theoretical CL takes up issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science.
It deals with formal theories about the linguistic knowledge that a human needs
for generating and understanding language. Today these theories have reached a
degree of complexity that can only be managed by employing computers.
Computational linguists develop formal models simulating aspects of the human
language faculty and implement them as computer programmes. These programmes
constitute the basis for the evaluation and further development of the theories.
In addition to linguistic theories, findings from cognitive psychology play a
major role in simulating linguistic competence. Within psychology, it is mainly
the area of psycholinguistics that examines the cognitive processes constituting
human language use. The relevance of computational modelling for
psycholinguistic research is reflected in the emergence of a new subdiscipline:
computational psycholinguistics.



We teach computers to communicate with people.
Applied CL focusses on the practical outcome of modelling human language use.
The methods, techniques, tools and applications in this area are often subsumed
under the term language engineering or (human) language technology. Although
existing CL systems are far from achieving human ability, they have numerous
possible applications. The goal is to create software products that have some
knowledge of human language. Such products are going to change our lives. They
are urgently needed for improving human-machine interaction since the main
obstacle in the interaction between human and computer is a communication
problem. Today's computers do not understand our language but computer languages
are difficult to learn and do not correspond to the structure of human thought.
Even if the language the machine understands and its domain of discourse are
very restricted, the use of human language can increase the acceptance of
software and the productivity of its users.



Friendly software should listen and speak.
Natural language interfaces enable the user to communicate with the computer in
French, English, German, or another human language. Some applications of such
interfaces are database queries, information retrieval from texts, so-called
expert systems, and robot control. Current advances in the recognition of spoken
language improve the usability of many types of natural language systems.
Communication with computers using spoken language will have a lasting impact
upon the work environment, completely new areas of application for information
technology will open up. However, spoken language needs to be combined with
other modes of communication such as pointing with mouse or finger. If such
multimodal communication is finally embedded in an effective general model of
cooperation, we have succeeded in turning the machine into a partner.

Machines can also help people communicate with each other.
Much older than communication problems between human beings and machines are
those between people with different mother tongues. One of the original aims of
applied computational linguistics has always been fully automatic translation
between human languages. From bitter experience scientists have realized that
they are still far away from achieving the ambitious goal of translating
unrestricted texts. Nevertheless computational linguists have created software
systems that simplify the work of human translators and clearly improve their
productivity. Less than perfect automatic translations can also be of great help
to information seekers who have to search through large amounts of texts in
foreign languages.
Language is the fabric of the web.
The rapid growth of the Internet/WWW and the emergence of the information
society poses exciting new challenges to language technology.  Although the new
media combine text, graphics, sound and movies, the whole world of multimedia
information can only be structured, indexed and navigated through language. For
browsing, navigating, filtering and processing the information on the web, we
need software that can get at the contents of documents. Language technology for
content management is a necessary precondition for turning the wealth of digital
information into collective knowledge. The increasing multilinguality of the web
constitutes an additional challenge for our discipline. The global web can only
be mastered with the help of multilingual tools for indexing and navigating.
Systems for crosslingual information and knowledge management will surmount
language barriers for e-commerce, education and international cooperation.




Our discipline combines ambitious visions and realistic applications.
We still do not know very well how people produce and comprehend language.  Yet
our understanding of the intricate mechanisms that underly human language
processing keeps growing.  Modelling such mechanisms on a computer also helps us
to discover and formally describe hidden properties of human language that are
relevant for any kind of language processing including many useful software
applications. Our long term goal is the deep understanding of human language and
powerful intelligent linguistic applications.  However, even today's language
technologies full of clever short cuts and shallow processing techniques can be
turned into badly needed software products.

The young field's appeal is its diversity.
For many students and practitioners of computational linguistics the special
attraction of the discipline is the combination of expertise from the
humanities, natural and behavioural sciences, and engineering. Scientific
approaches and practical techniques come from linguistics, computer science,
psychology, and mathematics. At some universities the subject is taught in
computer science at others it belongs to linguistics or cognitive science. In
addition there is a small but growing number of programs and departments
dedicated solely to computational linguistics.

 1996, 2000 Hans Uszkoreit
http://sirio.deusto.es/abaitua/konzeptu/nlp/HU_what_cl.htm





NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and
linguistics. It studies the problems inherent in the processing and manipulation
of natural language, but not, generally, natural language understanding.
. A natural language is one that evolved along with a culture of human native
speakers who use the language for general-purpose communication. Languages like
English, American Sign Language and Japanese are natural languages, while
languages like Esperanto are called constructed languages, having been
deliberately created for a specific purpose. Constructed languages can still
have "native" speakers, if children learn it at a young age from parents who
have learned the language; there are estimated to be 200-2000 native speakers of
Esperanto, for example.
Sometimes any language used by human beings (be it naturally evolved like
English, or constructed like Esperanto) is considered a "natural" language,
while programming languages and data representation languages for computers are
classed as artificial. This usage can be seen in the term natural language
processing.

This page was last modified 21:53, 13 Jan 2004

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing




HLTCentral - Gateway to Speech & Language Technology Opportunities on the
WebHLTCentral web site was established as an online information resource of
human language technologies and related topics of interest to the HLT community
at large. It covers news, R&D, technological and business developments in the
field of speech, language, multilinguality, automatic translation, localisation
and related areas. Its coverage of HLT news and developments is worldwide - with
a unique European perspective.

http://www.hltcentral.org/page-615.shtml
Last updated: 27.10.03 10:38




CONCLUSION
I think that New Technologies are essential for our present daily work and even
more and more we will need them for the future. This essay deals with some quite
inportant information taken from some internet pages. The method that iI have
followed to do this report is of the kind of Question- Answer, that is, a
questionaire with with some of the most important topics about Human Languages
and Technologies.














							Alaitz Bengoa Leon
							English Filology 2nd year