LANGUAGE ENGINEERING

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this report is to explain why new technologies are becoming so important for language and communication and how they can be helpful to linguistics; translators and other persons dedicated to the language. For it we will use information that is available in the Internet.

 

The use of the language has changed during the last years because it is becoming more and more helpful for the new technologies, the same way, as technologies are also useful for our development of language.

As you can see we will speak about language engineering and the way it can be helpful to those people who work in linguistics, translation and so. We will see it is also useful in education or in business. The same way, L.E is very important in the research of information. In the end, we will analyse briefly the different techniques and language resources that language engineering comprises such as the speech recognition and the lexicons.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

The content of the report is the following:

- Introduction

1. Competing in global market

2. Improving opportunities for education

3. Information and language engineering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this report is to explain why new technologies are becoming so important for language and communication and how they can be helpful to linguistics; translators and other persons dedicated to the language.

The use of the language has changed during the last years because it is becoming more and more helpful for the new technologies, the same way, as technologies are also useful for our development of language.

In the first pages of the report we will give a proper definition of what language engineering is considered to be. We will see that a good knowledge of language is necessary to apply it computer systems.

Secondly, I will try to show the ways in which language engineering may help us to make our work, especially for linguists, translators and so on. It can also be useful to the people who work in commercial trades or to improve the education.

Finally I will explain briefly which are the techniques and language resources that are used in language engineering, such as speech recognition or natural language generation, and lexicons and grammars. To conclude I will add my conclusion and the resources where I have looked for the information.

 

 

 

 

 

LANGUAGE ENGINEERING

To begin with we could give a definition of what Language Engineering is. We call language engineering to the application of our knowledge of language to the development of computer systems. These computer systems can recognise and interpretate human language in all its forms.

Language is the most effective way we have to express ourselves and to communicate with others. The use of language was currently restricted but a change is taking place. Language engineering provides us ways in which we can extend and improve our use of language to make it a more effective tool.

It is based on a vast amount of knowledge about language and the way it works, which has been accumulated through research. It uses language resources, such as electronic dictionaries and grammars, terminology banks and corpora, which have been developed over time.

 

 

HOW CAN LANGUAGE ENGINEERING BE HELPFUL?

Language Engineering is a technology, which uses our knowledge of

Language to enhance our application of computer systems:

Thanks to our development of language, language engineering will help us in the future in useful way. For instance it will be easier for us to look information, to teach ourselves other languages and improve or to operate more efficiently internationally.

We can say language engineering has helped us in many activities and problems in business and administration to produce more and more effective results. They can also be used in education, to help the disabled, and to bring new services both to organisations and to consumers.

 

 

 

There are a number of areas where the impact is significant:

From all these areas we will select three, which I think are the most interesting, that we will explain more deeply: competing in a global market, improving opportunities for education, and providing information.

 

COMPETING IN A GLOBAL MARKET

In business success there are many areas where the application of Language Engineering can lead to greater efficiency and reduced costs. Some of such applications are:

 

 

IMPROVING OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION

Distance learning has become an important part of the provision of education services. It is especially important to the concept of 'life-long learning' which is expected to become an important feature of life in the Information Age. The effectiveness of distance learning and self-study is improved by using telematics services and computer aided learning. The quality and success of computer aided learning can be greatly enhanced by the use of Language Engineering techniques.

If the computer aided learning package can understand the answers, which its users give to questions, rather than simply recognise that the answer is right, or wrong, it can direct them down a path, which is more appropriate to their needs. In this way, students are likely to learn more effectively and have a longer concentration span, because a more sensitive package is inherently more comfortable to work with.

 

INFORMATION AND LANGUAGE ENGINEERING.

The ability of processing natural language is essential for information such as information retrieval and web search, information extracting and data mining. Language engineering implements functions of a language and information via computers.

In the Internet we have found a work about these aspect which is quite interesting. The name of this report is "Language Engineering and Information Mapping in Pharmaceutical Medicine: Dealing Successfully with Information Overload". It begins with some paragraphs that are very interesting for our essay:

"It has been claimed that the widespread use of computers in business, and the availability of digital networks, would rapidly lead to paperless offices. Surprisingly or not, the reality is quite the opposite. Document printing has become as easy as pushing a button. In the good old days, one tiny spelling error would force a secretary to retype a letter or memo completely. Now it just takes a few keystrokes to correct a document on screen, and to print out a new version of it… how easy to deal with language on a machine!"

To follow with the idea of this paragraph we can say that nowadays thanks to computer systems we may have information presented in visual images, as sound as in natural language, either as text or speech will become the norm.

However, although computers are usually helpful for the research of information, many problems have been found. One of them is that the access to much of the information will be available only to the computer literate and those who understand English. Other disadvantage is the surfeit of information from which it is impossible to identify and select what is really wanted.

Language Engineering can solve these problems. Material provided by information services will be generated automatically in different languages

Language Engineering will also help in the way that we deal with associates abroad.

As we have said before other problem we may find is the excess of information, unable to collate, analyse, and select what we need. One of the fundamental components of Language Engineering is the understanding of language, by the computer. This is the basis of speech operated control systems and of translation, for example. If information services are capable of understanding our requests, and can scan and select from the information base with real understanding, not only will the problem of information overload be solved but also no significant information will be missed. Language Engineering will deliver the right information at the right time.

 

 

LANGUAGE ENGINEERING AND TRANSLATION

Usually language engineering is associated with translation; in fact most part of the information we can find about language engineering is related to works of translation.

We can speak about Machine Translation. Machine Translation is the process that uses computer software to translate text from one natural language into another. Translation is anything but simple. It's not a mere substitution for each word, but being able to know "all of the words" in a given sentence or phrase and how one may influence the other.

It is quite easy to find many places in the Internet that may help you in translation works and most of them offer different possibilities:

In the Internet we have found a report called "Translators and Language Engineering". The text is about the experience of the application of language engineering to Nigerian language called Nupe.

Nupe is a minority language in Nigeria and it remains undeveloped and no technical language has been created in order to be tog in primary schools. That is why this language needed to be prepared so that it could be efficient in this "changing world".

We can give some examples of how language engineering has been helpful in the translation of words from Nupe into English:

With this work on the Nupe language we see that language engineering can be also helpful in the study of Sociolinguistics.

 

 

 

 

 

TECHNIQUES AND LANGUAGE RESOURCES:

Language Engineering comprises a number of techniques and language resources.

TECHNIQUES:

· Natural language understanding: perfect understanding of language is not

always a requirement. In fact gaining a partial understanding can be sometimes very useful, for instance to focus in some interesting parts of the text or to identify linguistics features of unknown words.

· Natural language generation: the semantic representation of a text can be used as the basis for generating language. The interpretation of basic data can be mapped into a surface string in a selected fashion.

· Speech generation: playing generates speech ‘canned recordings of concatenating units of speech such as words and phonemes, together. Together with a graphical tool for structuring their application, allows someone who is neither a speech expert nor a computer programmer to design a structured dialogue, which can be used, for example, in automated handling of telephone calls.

 

 

LANGUAGE RESOURCES

The European Language Resources Association (ELRA) is making many of the resources available.

· Lexicons: a lexicon is a repository of words and knowledge about those words and they are needed for every language application.

· Specialist lexicons: there are many such as proper names, appropriate terminology and wordnets, which describes the relationship between words, for example, synonyms, antagonisms.

· Grammars: a grammar describes the structure of a language: word, phrase, and sentence...

· Corpora: the corpus is the body of a language and it can provide the basis for the analysis of language or verifying a theory.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

There is no doubt that technologies are very important at present. That is why there was need of an application of language into computer systems. With language engineering we have a very good solution. Besides, as we have been able to read in the report, it can help us in our development of language and in translation works.

For these reasons, in my opinion, all the studies and discoveries that have been made are very positive for all the people who work in subjects such as linguistics, literature or phonetics. The reason is that also thanks to language engineering it is easier to make studies about sounds of human language or to produce a literary piece.

For all that, the study for new applications of the language into computer systems should go on so that it could help linguistics, translators, and writers and so on to do their work. I hope that thanks to language engineering we could integrate the study of language in modern society, which seems to be worried only about technical matters.

 

REFERENCES

Nearly all the information that has been used to make the report was obtained from the Internet. In the following pages you could find much more information, examples and pictures about the theme:

Language Engineering and Information Mapping in Pharmaceutical Medicine: Dealing Successfully with Information Overload.